Cable engineering High temperature cables Fire resistant cable terminology

Cable Engineering High temperature cables Fire resistant cable Terminology By A|B|C|D|E|F|G|H|I|J|L|M|N|O|P|Q|R|S|T|U|V|W|Y sorting

Rigid Mineral Fireproof Cable vs Flexible Mineral Insulated Fireproof Cable

Abrasion resistance – Ability of a wire, cable or material to resist surface wear.
Alternating current (AC) – Electric Current that alternates or reverses polarity continuously. The number of alternations per second are described as cycles, (hertz or Hz)
Alternating current resistance – The resistance offered by any circuit to the flow of alternating current.
Ambient temperature – Any all-encompassing temperature within a given area.
American Wire Gage (AWG) – The standard system used for designating wire diameter.
Ampacity – The maximum current an insulated wire or cable can safely carry without exceeding either the insulation or jacket material limitations. (Same as Current Carrying Capacity.)
Anneal(Soften) – To subject to high heat with subsequent cooling. When annealing copper, the act of softening the metal by means of heat to render it less brittle.
Anti-oxidant – A substance that prevents or slows down oxygen decomposition of a material.
Anti-ozonant – A substance that prevents or slows down material degradation due to ozone reaction.
Armor – A braid or wrapping of metal, usually steel or aluminum, used for additional mechanical protection in harsh environments.
Armored cable – A cable provided with a wrapping of metal, usually steel wires, flat tapes, or interlocked tapes, primarily for the purpose of mechanical protection.
Attentuation – Power loss in an electrical system.

Binder – A spirally served tape or thread used for holding assembled cable components in place awaiting subsequent manufacturing operations .
Boot – A protective covering over any portion of a cable or conductor in addition to its jacket or insulation.
Braid – A fibrous or metallic group of filaments interwoven in cylindrical form to form a covering over one or more wires.
Breakdown (puncture) – A disruptive discharge through the insulation.
Breakdown voltage – The voltage at which the insulation between two conductors, or a conductor and ground, will break down.
Building wire – Wire used for light and power in permanent installations utilizing 600 volts or less. Usually in an enclosure and which will not be exposed to outdoor environments .
Bunch stranding – A method of stranding where a single conductor is formed from any number of wires twisted together in the same direction, such that all strands have the same lay length, but no specific geometric arrangement.
Butt joint – A splice or connection formed by placing the ends of two conductors together and joining them by welding, brazing or soldering.
Butt wrap – Tape wrapped around an object or conductor in an edge-to-edge condition.

Cable core – The portion of an insulated cable lying under a protective covering.
Cable filler – The material used in multiple conductor cables to occupy the spaces formed by the assembly of components, thus forming a core of the desired shape.
Capacitance – The ratio of the electrostatic charge on a conductor to the potential difference between the conductors required to maintain that charge. Units expressed in Farads.
Capacitive coupling – Electrical interaction between two conductors caused by the capacitance between them.
Capillary action – The phenomenon of liquid rising in a small interstice due to surface tension.
Carbon black – A black pigment. It imparts useful ultraviolet protective properties and is frequently suspended into plastic and elastomeric compounds intended for outside weather exposure.
Charging current – The current produced when a DC voltage is first applied to conductors of an unterminated cable. It is caused by the capacitive reactance of the cable, and decreases exponentially with time.
Chlorinated Polyethylene (CPE) -A polymerized ethylene resin that has been treated or combined with chlorine or a chlorine compound.
Chlorosuflonated Polyethylene (CSPE) – A rubbery polymer used for insulations and jackets. Manufactured by Dupont under the tradename of Hypalon.
Circular mil – A unit of area equal to the area of a circle whose diameter is 1 mil (0.001 inch). Used chiefly in specifying cross-sectional areas of round conductors.
Coating – A material applied to the surface of a conductor to prevent environmental deterioration, facilitate soldering or improve electrical performance.
Coaxial cable – A cable consisting of two cylindrical conductors with a common axis, separated by a dielectric.
Cold flow – Any permanent deformation due to pressure or mechanical force without the aid of heat softening.
Cold joint – A soldered joint made with insufficient heat.
Cold test – Any test to determine the performance of cables during or after subjection to a specified low temperature for a specified time.
Cold work – The hardening and embrittlement of metal by repeated flexing action.
Color code – A color system for circuit identification by use of solid colors, tracers, braids, surface printing, etc.
Compact round conductor – A conductor constructed with a central core surrounded by one or more layers of helically laid wires and formed into final shape by rolling, drawing, or other means.
Compact stranded constructor – A unidirectional or conventional concentric conductor manufactured to a specified diameter, approximately 8 to 10% below the nominal diameter of a noncompact conductor of the same cross-sectional area.
Composite cable – A cable containing more than one gauge size or a variety of circuit types.
Concentric stranding -A group of uninsulated wires twisted so as to contain a center core with one or more distinct layers of spirally wrapped, uninsulated wires laid overall to form a single conductor.
Concentricity – In a wire or cable, the measurement of the location of the center of the conductor with respect to the geometric center of the circular insulation.
Concentric-lay cable – A concentric-lay conductor, or a multiple-conductor cable composed of a central core surrounded by one or more layers of helically laid insulated conductors.
Conductivity – A term used in describing the capability of a material to carry an electrical charge. Usually expressed as a percentage of copper conductivity—copper being one hundred (100%) percent. Conductivity is expressed for a standard configuration of conductor.
Conductor – A wire or combination of wires not insulated from one another, suitable for carrying an electric current.
Conductor core – The center strand or member about which one or more layers of wires or members are laid helically to form a concentric-lay or rope-lay conductor.
Conduit – A tube through which insulated wires and cables are run.
Continuous vulcanization – Simultaneous extrusion and vulcanization of wire coating materials.
Contrahelical – Cable spiraling in an opposite direction than the preceding layer within a wire or cable.
Conventional concentric conductor – Conductor constructed with a central core surrounded by one or more layers of helically laid wires. The direction of lay is reversed in successive layers and generally with an increase in length of lay for successive layers.
Cord – A small, very flexible insulated cable constructed to withstand mechanical abuse. (Note: There is no sharp dividing line with respect to size between a cord and a cable, but generally, a cord is considered to be a size No. 10 and smaller )
Core -In cables, a component or assembly of components over which other materials are applied, such as additional components, shield, sheath, or armor. In fiber optics, the transparent glass or plastic section with a high refractive index through which the ligh
Corona – A luminous discharge due to ionization of the gas surrounding a conductor in which exists a voltage gradient exceeding a certain critical value.
Corona resistance – The time that insulation will withstand a specified level field-intensified ionization that does not result in the immediate complete breakdown of the insulation. Also called voltage endurance.
Corona test – A test to determine the ability of a cable to withstand the formation of corona under an increasing applied voltage, and to extinguish corona when a corona-producing voltage is reduced.
Creep – The dimensional change with time of a material under load. At room temperature, it is sometimes called cold flow.
Creepage – Electrical leakage on a solid dielectric surface.
Crimp termination – A wire termination that is applied by physical pressure of terminal to wire.
Cross linking – The establishment of chemical bonds between polymer molecule chains. It may be accomplished by heat, vulcanization, irradiation or the addition of a suitable chemical agent.
Cross sectional area – The area of the cut surface of an object cut at right angles to the length of the object.
Cross sectional area of a conductor – The sum of cross sectional areas of all the individual wires composing the conductor. It is generally expressed in circular mils.
Cross-linked – Intermolecular bonds between long chain thermoplastic polymers are changed by chemical or electron bombardment means. The properties of the resulting thermosetting material are usually improved.
Crosstalk – Signal interference between nearby conductors caused by pickup of stray energy. It is also called induced interference.
Crush resistance test – A test to determine the ability of a cable to resist damage from radial compression, such as might be encountered in service.
Cure – An irreversible process during which a rubber compound through a change in its chemical structure (for example, cross-linking), becomes less plastic and more resistant to swelling by organic liquids and elastic properties are conferred, improved, or extended over a greater range of temperature.
Cut-through resistance – The ability of a material to withstand mechanical pressure, usually a sharp edge of prescribed radius, without separation.
Cycle – One complete sequence of variations in an alternating current. The number of cycles occurring in one second is called the frequency.
Decibel -A unit to express differences of power level. Used to express power gain in amplifiers or power loss in passive circuits or cables.
Density – The weight per unit volume of a substance.
Derating factor – A factor used to reduce the current carrying capacity of a wire when used in environments other than that for which the value was established.
Dielectric – Any insulating medium that intervenes between two conductors and permits electrostatic attraction and repulsion to take place across it.
Dielectric breakdown – The voltage at which a dielectric material is punctured.
Dielectric – 1) Any insulating medium which intervenes between two conductors and permits electrostatic attraction and repulsion to take place across it; 2) A material having the property that energy required to establish an electric field is recoverable in whole or
Direct burial cable – A cable installed directly in the earth.
Direct current – Electrical current whose electrons flow in one direction only; it may be constant or pulsating as long as their movement is in the same direction.
Direction of lay – The lateral direction, designated as left -hand or right-hand, in which the wires of a member or units of a conductor run over the top of the member or conductor as they recede from an observer looking along the axis of the member or conductor.
Dissipation – Unusable or lost energy, as the production of unused heat in a circuit.
Drain wire – The uninsulated wire in contact with an electrostatic shield throughout its length, in an instrumentation or control cable, used to discharge unwanted signals. Also provides a means of terminating laminated shields. Sometimes used to describe the metalli
Drawing – In the manufacture of wire, pulling the metal through a die or series of dies for reduction of diameter to specified size.
Duct – An underground or overhead tube through which electrical conductors are pulled. Gives mechanical protection.
Durometer -A measure of hard n e s s
Eccentricity – A measure of the lack of coincidence of longitudinal axes of a circular cross-sectional wire and its surrounding circular cross-sectional insulation. It is expressed as the percentage ratio of the distance between wire and insulation centers to the difference between wire and insulation radii.
Elastic deformation – A change in a substance whereby it reverts to its original dimensions on release of an applied stress.
Elastometer – A material that at room temperature returns rapidly to approximately its initial dimensions and shape after substantial deformation by a weak stress and release of the stress.
Elongation – The fractional increase in the length of a material stressed in tension.
Embossing – A means of marker identification by means of thermal indentation leaving raised lettering on the sheath material of cable.
Environmental stress cracking resistance – The ability of a material to resist crack formation and crack propagation when subjected to stress within a contaminating environment.
Equilay conductor – Conductor constructed with a central core surrounded by more than one layer of helically laid wires with all layers having a common length of lay and the direction of lay being reversed for successive layers.
Ethylene Propylene Rubber (EPR) – An ozone resistant rubber consisting primarily of ethylene propylene copolymer (EPM) or ethylene propylene diene terpolymer (EDPM).
Extrusion -The process of continuously forcing a plastic or elastomer and a conductor core through a die, thereby applying a continuous coating of insulation or jacket to the core or conductor.
Fatigue resistance – Resistance to metal crystallization which leads to conductors or wires breaking from flexing.
Fault current – The maximum electrical current that will flow in a short-circuited system prior to the actuation of any current-limiting device. It is far in excess of normal current flow and is limited only by a system’s generating capacity and a cable’s impedence.
FEB – Fluorinated Ethylene Propylene is a ”Teflon” fluorocarbon resin and is a registered trademark of the DuPont Company. This is a melt extrudable fluorocarbon resin.
Fiber optic – A lightwave or optical communications system in which electrical information is converted to light energy transmitted to another location through optical fibers, and is there converted back into electrical information.
Fibrous filler – A material used to fill interstices in cables made from fibers, such as jute, polypropylene, cotton, glass, etc.
Figure 8 cable – An aerial cable configuration in which the conductors and the steel strand which supports the cable are integrally jacketed. A cross section of the finished cable approximates the figure 8.
Filler – (1) A material used in the cable to fill large interstices between electrical components; (2) A substance, often inert, added to a compound to improve properties and/or decrease cost.
Film – Thin, plastic sheeting having nominal thickness usually not greater than 0.010 inch.
Flame resistance – The ability of a burning material to extinguish its own flame, once its flame-initiating heat source is removed.
Flame retardance – Ability of a material to p revent the spread of combustion by a low rate of travel so the flame will not be conveyed..
Flex life – The number of bends or twists, of specified type, that a cable will withstand before failure.
Flexing test – Any test to determine the ability of a cable to withstand repeated bending and twisting.
Ground – (1) An electrical term meaning to connect to the earth or other large conducting body to serve as an earth thus making a complete electrical circuit; ( 2) A wire intended to be used for grounding (also called grounding conductor).
Ground potential – Zero potential with respect to the ground or earth.
Grounded neutral – A circuit operates with grounded neutral when the neutral is metallically connected to ground and there is a provision for immediate removal of a faulted element
Grounding conductor -A conductor in a transmission cable or line that is grounded.

High temperature cables – High-temperature cables are made of high-temperature-resistant insulating materials, such as PFA Teflon, which can operate for a long time in 180℃ to 250℃ environments, and are suitable for power transmission and signal control under extreme temperature conditions to ensure reliable operation in high-temperature, corrosive or harsh environments.
Hard-drawn wire – As applied to aluminum and copper, wire that has been cold drawn to final size so as to approach the maximum strength obtainable.
Heat endurance – The time of heat aging that a material can withstand before failing a specific physical or electrical test.
Heat resistance – Ability of a substance to maintain physical and chemical identity and electrical integrity under specified temperature conditions.
Heat shock – A test to determine stability of a material by sudden exposure to a high temperature for a short period of time.
Helix – A spiral winding.
Hertz – A term that is rapidly replacing cycles-per-second as an indication of frequency.
High voltage time test – A high-voltage time test is an accelerated life test on a cable sample in which voltage is the factor increased.
Hygroscopic – A material capable of absorbing and retaining moisture from the air.
Hypalon – DuPont trademark for chlorosulfonated polyethylene (CSPE) synthetic rubber.

Irradiation- The exposure of a material to high energy emissions. In insulations for the purpose of favorably altering the molecular structure. Excessive exposure can be detrimental to the physical and electrical properties.

Jacket – A material covering over a wire insulation or an assembly of components. An overall jacket on a complex cable grouping is also often referred to as a sheath. In fiber optics, a covering over a fiber, bundle of fibers, or cable which protects against th
Jumper – A short length of conductor used to make a connection between terminals, around a break in a circuit, or around an instrument.

Lap slice – A permanent joint formed in a short overlapping region of two parallel conductors or tapes.
Lay – The length measured along the axis of a wire or cable required for a single strand (in stranded wire) or conductor (in cable) to make one complete turn about the axis of the conductor or cable.
Length of lay – The axial length of one turn of the helix of a wire or member.
Longitudinal shield – A tape shield, flat or corrugated, applied longitudinally with the axis of the core being shielded.

Marker type – A narrow strip of fabric, paper or plastic laid longitudinally within a cable; it bears printed information such as the specification to which the cable was made and the name of the cable’s manufacturer.
Marker threads – Colored strings laid parallel and adjacent to the strands of an insulated conductor to reveal information such as the conductor’s manufacturer, the specification to which it was made, and its thermal capability.
Messenger wire – A metallic supporting member either solid or stranded which may also perform the function of a conductor.
Migration – The loss of plasticizer from a plastic, usually due to heat or aging. It is undesirable since it will make the plastic hard and brittle. It is also called leaching.
Mil – Unit of measure equal to 1/1000 of an inch.
Moisture absorption – The amount of water that an insulation or jacket, which is initially dry, will absorb under specified conditions. It is expressed as the percentage ratio of the absorbed water’s weight to the weight of the jacket or insulation alone.

Neoprene – A synthetic rubber with good resistance to oil, chemicals and flame. Also called polychloroprene.
Nitrile rubber – A rubbery copolymer of butadiene and acrylonitrile. It is usually compounded and vulcanized.
Nominal – Name or identifying value of a measurable property by which a conductor or component or property of a conductor is identified, and to which tolerances are applied.
Nylon -An abrasion resistant thermoplastic with good chemical resistance used for wire and cable jacketings.

Oxygen bomb test – A test to determine the ability of conductors and insulations to withstand physical and electrical change when immersed in pure oxygen gas of specified temperature and pressure for a specified time.

Plasticizer – A chemical agent added in compounding plastics to make them softer and more flexible.
Plating – Any thin metallic coating applied over a metallic substratum.
Plenum – The air handling space such as that found above drop-ceiling tiles or in raised floors. It is also the most stringent fire code rating for indoor cables.
Polychloroprene – Chemical name for neoprene. A rubber-like compound used for jacketing where wire and cable will be subject to rough usage, moisture, oil, greases, solvents and chemicals.
Polyester – A resin generally used as a thin film in tape form.
Polyethylene – A thermoplastic material composed of polymers of ethylene.
Polymer – A substance made of many repeating chemical units or molecules. The term polymer is often used in place of plastic, rubber or elastomer.
Polypropylene(PPE) – A thermoplastic similar to polyethylene but stiffer and having higher softening point (temperature); excellent electrical properties ..
Polyvinyl Chloride (PC) – A thermoplastic material composed of polymers of vinyl chloride, which may be rigid or elastomeric, depending on specific formulation.

Quad – A structural unit employed in cables, consisting of four separately insulated conductors twisted together.

Resistance – Property of a conductor that opposes the current flow produced by a given difference of potential. The ohm is the practical unit of resistance.
Riser – Pathways for indoor cables that pass between floors. It is normally a vertical shaft or space. A riser cable rating indicates good flammability characteristics, but not necessarily low smoke as in a plenum type.
Rope-lay conductor – Conductor constructed of a bunch-stranded or a concentric-stranded member or members, as a central core, around which are laid one or more helical layers of such members..

Secondary insulation – Any extremely high resistance material which is placed over primary insulation to protect it from abrasion.
Semi-conductor – In wire industry terminology, a material possessing electrical conductivity that falls somewhere between that of conductors and insulators. Usually made by adding carbon particles to an insulator (e.g. conductor shield and insulation shield). Not the same
Serve – Any helical wrapping applied over a wire or cable core. It may consist of wires, fibers, yarns or tapes.
Served wire shield – A barrier to the passage of interference formed by a helical wrapping of wires over a cable core. It is also called spiral shield.
Sheath – The combination of a metallic shield and an extruded plastic jacket applied as the outermost covering on a cable. In the absence of a shield, the extruded jacket may be designated as a sheath.
Shield – A metallic layer placed around an insulated conductor or group of conductors to prevent electrostatic or electro magnetic interference between the enclosed wires and external fields. This shield can be braided or served wires, foil wrap, foil backed tape
Shield coverage – The amount of cable core surface area which is covered by a shield. It is expressed as a percentage of the cable core’s total surface area. It is also called braid coverage when applied to a braided shield.
Shielding – The practice of confining the electrical field around a conductor to the primary insulation of the cable by putting a conducting layer over and/or under the insulation. (External shielding is a conducting layer on the outside of the insulation. Strand or internal shielding is a conducting layer over the conductor itself).
Skeleton braid – Widely separated braid of fiber copper, or steel, used to hold core together, for reinforcing jacket or for shielding.
Soft wire – Wire that has been drawn or rolled to final size and then heated to remove the effects of cold working.
Spark test – A test designed to locate pin-holes in an insulated wire by application of an electrical potential across the material for a very short period of time while the wire is drawn through an electrode field.
Sprial wrap – A term given to describe the helical wrap of a tape or thread over a core.
Splice – A joint used for connecting two lengths of conductor or cable with good mechanical strength as well as good conductivity.
Stabilizer – Any ingredient added to plastics to preserve their physical and chemical properties.
Static – Electrical discharges in the atmosphere such as lightning and corona.
Strand – (1) A single uninsulated wire; (2) One of the wires of any stranded conductor.
Strand lay – The distance of advance of one strand of a spirally stranded conductor in one turn, measured axially.
Stranded conductor – A conductor composed of a group of wires, usually twisted, or of any combination of such groups of wires.

Tape wrap – A spirally applied tape over an insulated or uninsulated wire .
Tear strength – The force required to initiate or continue a rip in a jacket or other insulation under specified conditions.
Temperature rating – The maximum temperature at which a given insulation or jacket may be safely maintained during continuous use, without incurring any thermally-induced deterioration.
Tensile strength – The longitudinal stress required to break a specimen of prescribed dimension divided by the original cross-sectional area at the point of rupture (usually expressed in pounds per square inch).
Thermal conductivity – Ability of material to conduct heat.
Thermal rating – The maximum and/or minimum temperature at which a material will perform its function without undue degradation.
Thermoplastic – A classification of resin that can be readily softened and reformed by heating and be rehardened by cooling.
Thermoset -To cure through chemical reaction by heat to a point of not being resoftened by subsequent heating.
A resin which cures by chemical reaction.
Tinned wire – Copper wire that has been coated during manufacture with a layer of tin or solder to prevent corrosion or facilitate soldering.
Tolerance – A specified allowance for error from a standard or given dimension, weight or property.
Triad – Three insulated wires of a single circuit forming a unit. (Two or more units are cabled to form a multi-triad cable.)

Unidirectional conductor – Conductor constructed with a central core surrounded by more than one layer of helically laid wire, all layers having a common direction of lay, with increase in length of lay for each successive layer.
Unilay conductor – Conductor constructed with a central core surrounded by more than one layer of helically laid wires, all layers having a common length and direction of lay.

Volt – The difference of potential required to make a current of one ampere flow through resistance of one ohm.
Voltage drop -The voltage developed across a component or conductor by the current in the resistance or impedance of the component or conductor.
Voltage rating – The maximum voltage at which a given cable or insulated conductor may be safely maintained during continuous use in a normal manner. It is also called working voltage.
Vulcanization – A chemical reaction in which the physical properties of an elastomer are changed by reacting it with sulfur or other crosslinking agents.

Water absorption – Ratio of the weight or water absorbed by a material to the weight of the dry material.

Yield strength – The lowest stress at which a material undergoes plastic deformation. Below this stress, the material is elastic; above it, viscous

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